## Chapter: Transform Analysis of LTI System (Frequency Response)

**(Note: A Chapter with low Weightage)**

#### Topics to be prepared

#### I want to Just Pass:

- LTI systems as Frequency-Selective Filters like Low Pass, High Pass, Band Pass, Notch, Comb, All-Pass Filters and Digital Resonators.
- Invertibility of LTI systems.
- Minimum-Phase, Maximum-Phase, Mixed-Phase systems.

#### I want to get good Marks: (As above and plus)

- Relation between System Function & Frequency Response Function.
- Computation of the Frequency Response Function.

#### I want to Score Maximum: (As above and plus)

- Review of Z Transform and its Properties,
- Response to –
- Sinusoidal and Complex Exponential Signals
- Periodic Input Signals
- Aperiodic Input Signals

## Chapter: Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT)

#### (__Note__: A very easy and high scoring chapter. A must for all students who want to pass DTSP)

**Topics to be prepared**

#### I want to Just Pass:

- Definition and Properties of DFT.
- DFT as a Linear Transformation.
- Problems based on
- Computation of DFT and IDFT
- Circular Convolution using DFT / IDFT
- Evaluating DFT using Properties of DFT
- Relation between Z-transform, DTFS & DTFT

#### I want to get good Marks: (As above and plus)

- Frequency domain Sampling and Reconstruction of DT signals

#### I want to Score Maximum: (As above and plus)

## Chapter: Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT)

#### (Note: High scoring chapter. A must for all students who want to pass DTSP)

**Topics to be prepared**

#### I want to Just Pass:

- Radix-2 Decimation In Time (DIT) & Decimation In Frequency (DIF) FFT for N = 4, 6, 8 with Flow Graph (or Butterfly diagram).
- Inverse FFT
- Problems based on
- Computation of DFT and IDFT by FFT
- Circular Convolution using DFT/ IDFT by FFT
- Comparing Computational Complexity between DFT and FFT

#### I want to get good Marks: (As above and plus)

- Twiddle Factor and its Properties
- DIT-FFT and DIF-FFT algorithms and derivation for N = 4, 8

#### I want to Score Maximum: (As above and plus)

- Split-Radix FFT algorithms and derivation for N = 6 (3 ´ 2 or 2 ´ 3) for both DIF & DIT.
- Split-Radix FFT algorithms and derivation for N = 9 (3 ´ 3)

## Chapter: IIR Digital Filters

**(Note: A Major Chapter with high Weightage)**

**Topics to be prepared**

#### I want to Just Pass:

- Impulse Invariance Method and Aliasing
- Bilinear Transformation (BLT) Method and Frequency Warping and Pre-Warping.
- Analog and Digital Frequency Transformations
- Analog filter approximations: Butterworth Filters
- Design of IIR digital filters from Analog filters – Order of Filter, Cut-off Frequency, Un-normalized and Normalized Transfer Function

#### I want to get good Marks: (As above and plus)

#### I want to Score Maximum: (As above and plus)

- Analog filter approximations: Chebyshev Filters

## Chapter: FIR Digital Filters

** (**__Note__: A Major Chapter with high Weightage)

__Note__: A Major Chapter with high Weightage)

**Topics to be prepared**

#### I want to Just Pass:

- Linear Phase Filters – Phase and Group Delay.
- location of the zeros of linear phase FIR filters.
- Characteristics of FIR digital filters.
- Frequency Response.
- Design of FIR digital filters using window techniques (Rectangular and Hamming), Frequency Sampling Technique.
- Gibbs phenomenon.
- Comparison of IIR and FIR filters

#### I want to get good Marks: (As above and plus)

- Design of FIR digital filters using window techniques (Triangular, Hanning and Blackman)

#### I want to Score Maximum: (As above and plus)

- Design of FIR digital filters using window techniques (Kaiser Window)

## Chapter: Finite Word Length Effects in Digital Filters

**(**__Note__: A chapter from which mostly theory questions are asked)

__Note__: A chapter from which mostly theory questions are asked)

**Topics to be prepared**

#### I want to Just Pass:

- Quantization by truncation / rounding.
- Effects due to truncation and rounding.
- Analysis of Coefficient Quantization Effects.

#### I want to get good Marks: (As above and plus)

- Product Quantization Error.
- Quantization of fixed-point numbers.
- Quantization of floating-point numbers

#### I want to Score Maximum: (As above and plus)

- Number representation: Fixed Point, Floating Point.
- Analysis of
- A/D Conversion Noise
- Arithmetic Round-Off Errors dynamic range scaling

## Chapter: Realization structures for IIR and FIR filters

**Topics to be prepared**

#### I want to Just Pass:

- Direct Form I Structure.
- Direct Form II Structure.
- Cascade Structure.
- Parallel Structure.
- Lattice-Ladder Structures

#### I want to get good Marks: (As above and plus)

- Frequency Sampling Realization of FIR filters.

#### I want to Score Maximum: (As above and plus)

## Chapter: Multi rate Signal Processing

**(Note: Only Theory is asked from this chapter)**

**Topics to be prepared**

#### I want to Just Pass:

- Multirate Signal Processing.
- Decimation by a factor D.
- Interpolation by I.
- Sampling Rate Conversion by a rational factor I/D.
- Multistage implementation of sampling rate conversion.
- Application of Multirate Signal Processing for
- Design of Phase Shifters,
- Implementation of Narrowband Low Pass Filters
- Sub Band Coding of speech signals

#### I want to get good Marks: (As above and plus)

- Polyphase filter structures.
- Interchange of filters and down samplers/up samplers.
- Polyphase Structures for Decimation and Interpolation filters.
- Structures for Rational Sampling Rate Conversion.
- Sampling Rate Conversion with Cascade Integrator Comb filters.
- I want to Score Maximum: (As above and plus)
- Sampling rate conversion of band pass signals.
- Sampling rate conversion by an arbitrary factor – arbitrary re-sampling with polyphase interpolators, narrow band filter structures.
- Interfacing of digital systems with different sampling rates,

## Chapter: Applications of DSP

** (**__Note__: Only Theory is asked from this chapter)

__Note__: Only Theory is asked from this chapter)

**Topics to be prepared**

#### I want to Just Pass:

- Dual –Tone multi frequency signal detection.
- Musical Sound Processing.
- Digital Music Synthesis.
- Discrete Time Analytic Signal Generation.

#### I want to get good Marks: (As above and plus)

- Spectral Analysis of sinusoidal signals.
- Spectral Analysis of non-stationary signals
- Spectral Analysis of random signals

#### I want to Score Maximum: (As above and plus)

- Trans-multiplexers.
- Oversampling ADC and DAC
- Sparse Antenna Array Design.